Friday, August 31, 2007

The Year Was 1906

August 31


Hans Langseth, pioneer dies in Minneapolis hospital
Mr. Langseth was one of the early settler's. He owned a hardware store. I wonder if this is a relative of Marilyn Langseth a 1962 graduate and a grade school chum.

Front page AD Have a good farm, only 37, and want a wife.

Births and deaths in Red Lake County for 1905 Births 412 Deaths 112

September 1906 News is scarce this week; people are either hunting or talking politics.

Great Northern Railroad sued by woman from Cass Lake stating her feelings was hurt. The suit states that on July 20th of 1906, Elizabeth, at the age of 13 years and 6 months, died at Cass Lake and that the body was prepared and made ready for shipment to White Earth for burial. The body was loaded upon the Great Northern passenger train at Cass Lake with instructions to be transferred to the Soo Line at Erskine. Then, instead of unloading this body at Erskine, it was carried through to Crookston and as a result delayed the funeral for twenty-four hours and caused the plaintiff great annoyance and damage.

Total enrollment in schools: 850 Names of buildings mentioned High school building Central building Knox building on the east side

Bijou Theater Automatic Vaudeville Show Open every afternoon from 2 to 5 and every evening from 7-11. Admission 10 cents; children 5 cents. Entire change of program twice each week.

September 27, 1906 School gets complete set of Dodd, Mead & Co. New International Encyclopedias.

Mandolin group organized

Mrs. Conway and her baby were thrown from their buggy when it was hit from behind by an automobile.

November 1, 1906 “Every voter in Red Lake County should vote next Tuesday. As patriotic citizens this is a duty they owe to themselves and to the county in which they reside. If every voter turns out and votes his honest convictions there is no question but what the gang at Red Lake Falls will be defeated by a decisive majority. Let everyone do his duty”

Roads are a topic. Automobiles are carrying off the dust and destroying the roads.

Drain the swamps!

AD French dry cleaning at Bjorkman’s It is the only thing that can renew clothes. Fine silk and wool cannot be washed, if you want to look like new, send it to B Dan Bjorkman, dyer and cleaner on the corner of Main Avenue and First Street.

Norman country divided to make Mahnomen County.

The confluence of the Thief River and the Red Lake River has a wooden bridge over Eighth Street.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

The Bloom Family

August 29

Why are these people important? Carl married Nina Mellem Anderson. Carl is lovingly considered "grandpa", although there is no blood relationship.

Johannes G Bloom (1860-1951) was born in Sweden and died at the hospital in Thief River Falls, Mn. He is buried at Wildwood Cemetery, Rosewood, MN. His father's name was Andres Gabrileson; mother unknown. John was a pioneer resident of the area. The condition leading to his death was pneumonia with antecedent causes being diabetes and senility.

His wife, Charlotte Gustafson Bloom, (1861-1938) was born in Sweden and died at Rosewood, Minnesota. Funeral services will be conducted Monday Afternoon at 2 o'clock at Rosewood for Mrs. Lotta Bloom of Rosewood, a Pennington County pioneer of Norden township for the last 52 years who died at her home on Tuesday.

Mrs. Bloom was born September 6, 1861 in Sweden where she was married to John Bloom in 1883. In 1885 the Bloom family came to the United States and settled near Rosewood where Mrs. Bloom lived for the rest of her life.

She is survived by her husband, five sons, John of Spokane, Washington, Helmer of Chicago, Illinois, Axel of Fergus Falls, and Carl and Emil of Rosewood. She is also survived by three daughters; Mrs. John Pihl of Virgina, Mrs. Lloyd Crown of Red Lake Falls, and Mrs. AG Roos of this city plus two brothers, Carl and Emil Johnson, and four sisters, Mrs. Ann Peterson, Mrs. Selma Huges, Mrs. A Vallen, and Mrs. Ida Brooks and 15 grandchildren. One son Arthur, and one daughter, Alma preceded her in death. Lotta died of CA of the pancreas which she had for one year. She had ovary and uterine cancer for the last six months. She is buried at Wildwood.




Anna (1887- ) Who married to AG Roos

Gustaf (1895-1986) listed as same maiden name as Charlotte

Carl Oscar Bloom, (1891-1984) who was born in Rosewood, MN and died in Thief River Falls, MN. He married Nina Mellem Anderson, a widow. They had one child together, LaVerne (1921-2004), who married Evelyn Breiland. They had one child, Cheryl Darlene (1947).

Funeral Services for Carl Boom of this city, were held Saturday at 11:00 o'clock at the Evangelical Covenant Church. Mr. Bloom died Tuesday at Northwestern Hospital.

Carl O Bloom, a son of the late John and Lotta Gustafsdotter Bloom was born December 28, 1891 in Rosewood. He attended school and grew to manhood in that community.

On March 11, 1920, he married at Viking to Nina Mellem Anderson. The couple farmed in rual Rosewood until 1936. In 1938, they moved into the village of Rosewood and in 1955 they moved to Thief River Falls. For the last six years, he had been a resident of Valley Home.

He is survived by one son, LaVerne Bloom, Carmel, IN, six grand children, 17 great grand children, two brothers, Emil Bloom of this city, and Helmer, Chesterson, IN. A daughter-in-law, Ella Anderson and several nieces and nephews.

He is preceded in death by his wife who died November 3, 1963; two step-sons, Newell and Lloyd Anderson, three brothers and four sisters. Carl died of generalized system degeneration. Another significant condition was CA of the prostate.

Axel Bloom (1898-1964 )

Otto Bloom (1899- )

Arthur Bloom (1899-1926). He was born in Rosewood and died at San in Thief River Falls.

Arthur Bloom, 26 year old son of Mr. and Mrs. John Bloom residing eight miles northwest of this city, died Wednesday, January 20 at the Oakland Park Sanatorium, where he had been a patient less than a month. He had suffered from tuberculosis for about three years.

Mr. Bloom was born on his parent's farm in Norden Township and attended the common school of that community. Prior to his illness he worked on the home farm, except for two years during which he was employed in the Iron mines at Hibbing. Besides his parents, three sisters and five brothers survive him. They are Mrs. Lloyd Crown, Mrs. AG Roos, Mrs. JM Pihl, Carl and Emil of Rosewood, John of Spokane, Washington, Helmer of Chicago, and Axel of Devils Lake, North Dakota. All were present at the funeral except John, Axel, and Mrs. Pihl. Helmer will remain here for a couple of weeks. The funeral services were held at the Swedish Mission Church at Rosewood. Arthur is buried at Wildwood

Helmer Edwin Bloom (1900-1999 ) died in Lubbuck, Texas.

Alma Sophia Bloom (1903-1914). She is the first known burial at Wildwood

From the newspaper clippings:

1917 Rosewood News Axel Bloom returned home from Gemmel on Thursday where he had been employed in a lumber camp for some time. Since the strike of the WWI, he found it difficult to pursue his work and deemed it advisable to take a couple of week’s vacation.

1918 Rosewood News Mrs. Lloyd Crown and baby returned to their home in Rocksbury, having visited the John Bloom family

1918 Rosewood News John Bloom returned from TRF after spending several days attending the Swedish Conference

1918 Rosewood News Arthur Bloom of North Star College in Warren arrived home this evening to spend time with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Bloom.

1918 Rosewood News Axel Bloom registers for war service

1918 Rosewood News While in route to TRF, Emil Bloom had the misfortune of running his motorcycle into a barb wire fence. He has nasty gashes on both arms, breast, and the forehead.

1918 Rosewood News Rosewood News While in route to TRF, Emil Bloom had the misfortune of running his motorcycle into a barb wire fence. He has nasty gashes on both arms, breast, and the forehead. Emil Bloom returned home the later part of the week.

1918 Rosewood News Axel Bloom escapes from asylum

Rosewood News 1919 Axel Bloom is helping with farm work.

1920 Rosewood News Emil Bloom Injured

As a result of becoming entangled in the balance wheel of a small odd job gasoline engine he was about to start, Emil Bloom is at Physicians Hospital at TRF minus the greater part of his right hand thumb, a dislocated wrist and a broken radius bone in his forearm. It appears that Mr. Bloom, who is a young farmer residing about one mile north of tow, had on Wednesday afternoon attempted to start a small gas engine used to pump water to turn the washing machine and other small jobs, and in turning the balance wheel over with hand to start it, his glove had caught somehow and as the engine started with a jerk, it threw Mr. Bloom against the opposite wall with the sad result named. Dr. CM Adkins of TRF was immediately summoned by telephone and responded directly but on arriving discovered that the injury was of such a nature that home treatment was inadequate and took the patient along to the hospital where he now remains. It is later learned that the thumb and part of the hand will be amputated that hope is retained for the successful healing of the arm and wrist.

1920 Rosewood News At the home of the bride, Annie Bloom married Alexander Roos of Numedal Township

1921 Rosewood News Enroute home from Hazel, where they had spent a social day at the home of Mr. and Mrs. John Sjorberg, Mr. and Mrs. Carl Bloom and son, Laverne, and Mr. Axel Bloom, last Sunday evening had the misfortune of driving off one front wheel on the latter’s Ford coupe when returning home. One of the members, young Laverne, was thrown violently against the wind shield and received a very nasty gash from his forehead to his lip,, necessitating his being taken to the TRF hospital were he was sewed up.

1925 Rosewood News Mrs. John Bloom returned on Thursday from Thief River Falls where she has been visiting her son, Arthur, who is a patient of the sanatorium and who has been in serious condition for some time.

1925 Rosewood News Arthur Bloom, who as been at the san in TRF will return home and stay with his parents.

1925 John Bloom fell off a haystack and dislocated his shoulder

1939 LaVerne Bloom and Evelyn Brieland were over night guests of Mrs. Carl Bloom

1941 Clifford Rye and Axel Bloom left Monday for Warren where they will seek employment

1942 Pvt. LaVerne Bloom is at Camp Crowder, MO

1943 Cpl. Laverne Bloom is now stationed near San Francisco, Calif

1943 Mr. And Mrs. Carl Bloom have received word that their son, LaVerne Bloom has arrived safely in Australia.

1944 LaVerne Bloom hurt his arm in an accident while stationed in New Guinea

1944 Mrs. Carl Bloom received letters from her son, Cpl. Laverne Bloom of New Guinea that he is still in the hospital but is getting along nicely. He had received a cut on his right arm.

1947 Mr. and Mrs. LaVerne Bloom called on the home of Mrs. Carl Bloom on Monday
Additional guests at the Carl Bloom home included Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Anderson, Dorothy, Dick, Bob, and Judy.

1947 Dinner guests at the Lloyd Anderson home were Mr. and Mrs. LaVerne Bloom and T. Mellem

1947 Visitors at the home of Mrs. Carl Bloom Saturday evening were Mr. And Mrs. LaVerne Bloom and daughter Cheryl Darlene, Mr. And Mrs. Lloyd Anderson and family. Cheryl was born in Thief River Falls on October 5.

1949 Supper guests at the Lloyd Anderson home were Mrs. LaVerne Bloom and Cheryl from Sunflower, KS.

1952 Mr. and Mrs. LaVerne Bloom and Cheryl of Indianapolis, IN and Mrs. Carl Bloom of TRF were supper guests at the Lloyd Anderson home on Saturday evening.


Carl Bloom--In Step

Carl and Nina Bloom at their house at 612 State Avenue North
August 30

Lloyd’s dad, Olaf died when Lloyd was very young. His mother, Nina, married Carl Bloom on March 11, 1920. Lloyd was eight. Carl became a step father to Lloyd and Newell.

The Anderson children thought of him as Grandpa Bloom without converting the idea to step grandfather. The great grandchildren who lived in the area considered him ‘Grandpa Bloom’ as well. The children affected would be Judy and Shirley’s children: Lisa, Nenna, Brenda, Vince, and Juanita.

He was born and raised in Rosewood. He was a member of the Columbus School Board, a board member of the Wildwood Cemetery, and most likely had a title at the Mission Church in Rosewood. Carl was a farmer, businessman, and church leader.

Let’s take a look at the old papers for mention of his name.

1916 Rosewood News Albert Lappegaard, Carl Bloom, and Benhard Ranum brushed east of town last week.

May 1917 Rosewood News Carl Bloom left for Viking to spend a few days with friends.

1918 Rosewood News Gust Opseth left for TRF today to order railroad cars for his wood shipping. Mr. Opseth, Benhard Ranum, R. Skinner and the Bloom boys have been busy all week hauling green pole wood to town to be cut up into three foot lengths and loaded on cars ready for shipment to consumers both in Pennington County and the western part of Marshall County

1918 Rosewood News Carl and Annie Bloom left today for Thief River Falls to attend the farewell party for the soldiers

Rosewood News February 10, 1921 Mr. and Mrs. Carl Bloom are the proud parents of a fine baby boy, born to them on Saturday morning.

We know that he bought shares in the Viking Telephone Company.

September 1921 Rosewood News Carl Bloom is ill with an infection of the chest and left on Monday for TRF for medical attention.

June 1925 Rosewood News Carl Bloom from district 134 was in Warren to watch the graduation

November 1926 Rosewood News The twelfth annual Wildwood Cemetery Association meeting will be held at the home of Carl Bloom. Rosewood News The twelfth annual meeting of the Wildwood Cemetery met and elected T. Mellem as president and Carl Bloom Treasurer for three years

July 1935 Carl Bloom is on the sick list

July 1937 Mrs. Carl Bloom motored to Thief River Falls Sunday to visit with Mr. Carl Bloom at the San We know that Carl spent at least seventeen years in the San in Thief River Falls.

We know the first mention of the San is in 1916, with the approval of the land in May of 1916 on Oakland Park Road. It was to be a tri county hospital although another county was added later. The building open in early 1918. The nurses and staff quarters opened in March of 1921. By adding the staff quarters, the hospital was able to devote more area to patients.

It is believed that Nina worked at the San in the laundry while Carl was a patient. She began her employment in October, 1950. The San closed 1955 and was demolished in 1999. A new Nursing Home replaced this building in 1974

We are not certain when Carl came home from the San OR which San, as a healthy man. If he became a long term patient in 1937 and was there 17 years, that would equal 1954. There was another San in Crookston. Shirley remembers going there.

According to obituaries, Carl and Nina moved to Thief River Falls in 1955. Did they buy the house on State Avenue in 1955?

In a previous email from Shirley, after a conversation with Ella, she stated:

"Grandpa Bloom 1st went to the San in 1938..the same year Dorothy was born. I told her about the articles in the Times, about motoring to Warren etc. He could get out of the San sometimes and come home for visits. He was in the San 2 times. After the 1st time he got out, he dug a well and ended up back there for awhile. She thought 20 or 21 yrs. altogether".

When did Nina have her stroke? I remember being their for coffee and Nina, in her wheelchair, was drying dishes. We know that in the fall of 1962 she was not able to come to a wedding.

We know Nina died in November of 1963 and Carl continued to live in the house on State Avenue. We all remember how proud he was of his first car, a black Ford Falcon!

Carl did live at Valley Home for six years. Carl died in 1984, he was 92. He is buried in the Wildwood Cemetery at Rosewood, Minnesota. His obituary is posted under the essay called THE BLOOM FAMILY.


Elodee at nine

This was taken in late spring of 1954, I would turn 10 in August. I would be finished fourth grade in the dark room. The celebration is my brother, Greg's confirmation. I don't know where his picture is this is the only one I found in Mother's book. The picture is poor regardless of how much it is toyed with. I will say I probably have a smirk on my face; I usually did/do. The dress was yellow organdy. Wait a minute. When I was scrap booking this about my brother, I wrote about this. Let me see if I can find it.
MAY OF 1954

As members of the Lutheran Church, parents were expected to have their children baptized and confirmed. Part of any northern Minnesota obituary includes he was baptized and confirmed in the Lutheran faith and was a member of the ….church. Never mind the wrath of God, just watch out for your neighbors!

And so it came to pass in those days that Greg shall take two years of confirmation classes on Saturday morning and learn Luther’s Catechism.

Greg may or may not have gone to all the Saturday morning sessions with other kids his age, the important thing is, he was confirmed and he was in the group photo with Harold, “Pete the Mini” in the center. He may or may not have gone to church every Sunday during this time and taken notes.

It was the morning each confirm ant was to be taken into the fold as members of the church and receive their first communion. Dressed in robes, they would all line up at the altar and kneel. This for ever after would give them the privilege of an obit with he was baptized and confirmed in the Lutheran faith and was a member of the Zion Lutheran Church.

It was one of those days when the church which sat 750, sat 850. It was also one of those Sundays that the entire congregation would offer their tithes on the altar. That meant that each person would walk around the altar, make deposit, and then walk around the back of the church to their seat. In other words, one made a full circle.

The minister stood near the altar in prayer, the organist played as Mrs. Peterson sang. There were two piles of offerings. One on the altar and another one set up on table just for days like this. All the kids wondered if the big pile was for the minister and the other for Mrs. Peterson.
The more money put on the singer’s pile the louder she sang. Was there a rivalry for supremacy?
The floor was tile. I had on new white shoes with hard leather soles. I found out on the march around the church that I could heel-to-toe and my shoes made a wonderful clicking noise. That is, until mother caught up with me midway and pinched me on the shoulder which meant, you guessed it, STOP IT!!

Greg said he practiced a universal religion when he was in the jungles of Viet Nam. That is good enough for me. He was baptized and confirmed in the Lutheran faith ………
Notice I did an entire essay without sharing my school grades of fourth grade!
Generations complete: EERJ!

Ella Lundberg Ranum at Schiller Park, Il

My quest for today is to find four pictures of four generations. Jaeme, Rachel, myself, and Mother.

This is mother. Her family moved to the Chicago area sometime in 1929. Mother attended school in Shiller Park, which is a suburb west of Chicago. Her sister, Viola, would have been with the family also. Viola would have been fourteen in the fall of 1929.

Why did they move to Chicago? Phillip had been layed off on his job for the railroad. He had brothers living in Illinois and suggested he come there for work. Phillip and Mae were married there. Mother would attend at least second and third grade there. I have a certificate of Attendance from Lincoln School where she was awarded graduation on the fifth of June, 1931.

For those of you reading this, I thought what the back of the report card would be of interest:

"This is a conscientious report on the work your child is doing in school. Please study it carefully before signing and returning it.

Grade D signifies that the pupil is in danger of failing, while grade E shows that the child is failing. Do not wait until promotion time to find out the reason for the low marks. See the teacher right away. At the same time, don't be impatient with the child so long as he is well behaved and industrious. Let your first concern be the report on deportment and application.

Irregular attendance retards the progress of the whole school as well as the individual child. There should therefore be positively no absence that is not absolutely necessary.
Your child will receive this report on the dates listed below. Please ask to see the report on these dates and sin it so that it may be returned immediately. Your signature indicates that you have inspected the card, not necessarily that you approve of the work". (Each year changes but it comes out to every six weeks).

The marking scale was
A 100-94
B 93-87
C 86-81
D 80-75
E Failure

Mother spent the last three groups of six week periods with her birth mother, Clara Henry. Mother circled the times she signed her report and wrote "love". Her sixth grade marks jumped into the A range. In the three report cards I have, she was never tardy. In three years, she missed nine days of school. And for those of you who think about it, she was 15% below average in weight three years running.

2007-1931= A long time ago!


School Days in 2007

Grand daughter as a fourth grader

School Days


My grand daughter started school yesterday. She is in the fourth grade. Fourth grade is a new level. Yes, it is based on all you have learned thus far but it is harder. Because she is my grand daughter, I don't expect her to see the line between third and fourth grade. I expect her to attend daily and build on her previous skills and open up her world day by day. She is a self starter; teachers are necessary to introduce the building blocks. School helps her grow socially.

I was worried about fourth grade for her mother. One of the teacher's was old and if you were nice, you got great grades. For my daughter, that would mean not be mentally challenged. I was ready to be a she bear and make sure my cub got the best.

The principal of the school and I had numerous discussions about three girls, one of which was my daughter. Helen was convinced putting three strong friends in the same room was not in their best interests. She said that if any one of them got on the outs with the others, it was emotionally disaster for the ousted one. I did not agree; she would not be convinced.

The three girls were a redhead, a brunette, and my daughter, the blond. Rachel got the GREAT teacher and the others got the old one and they were 'nice'. Bud would get the old teacher when he was in fourth grade and was 'nice'.

I was a Girl Scout leader for several years. This year, the fourth grade, was a huge leap forward to many of the girls. They were given five minutes at the being of our weekly meetings to fuss about class. Yet, these same girls would, as a group, do a leader proud. They were a team. Although Girl Scouts is not hard, fourth grade was a time to start working toward specific goals, which were called badges. Maybe that is what fourth grade is about; starting to hone old skills while learning new ones and having enough inner organization for all of it.

I don't remember much about fourth grade. The room was dark and I sat behind someone who had brain surgery. I spent most of my time looking at the hole and watching her hair grow out. One girl put a quarter in her mouth and it got stuck in her throat and the principal beat her on the back until the quarter dislodged and pl inked down the stairway. The teacher lacked the luster that previous teachers had but no one told me it was time to learn school work on my own. I only stretched toward that in my non-school life. I think teachers should announce that at the beginning of the year. My teachers just sort of started the year with out a drum roll and dragged us through it, ear by ear. We never said, "I don't like this subject".

As for mother, she spent fourth grade at her real mother's house. Clara helped mother scholastically. Mother liked to learn. She would continue her quest well into her later years. Imagine my surprise when I saw she had actually written in the margins!

Daddy attended Rosebank school; he had perfect attendance and perfect spelling the first month. Kids went to school about eight months a year then. They were off during harvest season and later potato picking season was mentioned. First graders did not go to school on the bitter days of winter. Most of them walked, others skied, and some were taken by horse and sleigh.

In the early school days of Thief River Falls, school was held for three months of the year. Two nail barrels and a board was their 'desk'. We know from reading about Stengelson that children didn't wear shoes or underwear in the summer.

We got a call recently about a family who had no money to buy school supplies or clothes to start school. It isn't at all like one needs two-number two pencils and a big Chief tablet. This family needed a large bag full of supplies. My children's supplies were boxed by a local drug store and sold for $3.95. I am hard pressed to have a clue as to what just supplies cost now.

I know my grandparents and my parents were not outfitted with new garments to wear the first day, they were lucky to have shoes. I talked with someone at a class reunion who said that Daddy and Harry bought shoes for kids in the neighborhood of Rosewood when the parents could not afford shoes. As you can see, the economy factor spans decades.

I did have new shoes to start school. I do remember having a new dress to wear. When the kids were in school, that was important they had the same advantage. How painful for me to see a boy in seventh grade wear the same thing to school every day. I wonder what ever happened to him?

Here are some excerpts from the newspaper about school:

First year, 3 month term
Kids sat on planks resting on powder kegs
Ten kids, eight of them are the LaBree family
The first school was a small log cabin in the grove west of the iron bridge.

Later named District 107
School was on Third Street
West side school records 1891 but the first taught year was 1883.

Sends out notice in paper for anyone having 12 lots to sell for building. Presently the two schools are on a small lot with a store also on the property. Central school was built on 12 lots. Property cost was $1,240

Rosewood News Friday was observed as cleaning day at the local school. Now everything is neat and tidy.

Rosewood News Newell Anderson has taken up schooling again.

Rosewood News A large oil painting of Lincoln has been purchased for the Rosewood School

Rosewood News Rosebank School finished its seven month term.

Rosewood News School opens at Rosebank; it is to be an 8 month term. Enrollment is expected at 35.

Rosewood News Rosebank has school elections. New blackboards will be installed as the other is in bad condition. Did you ever clean the black boards?

ABC 123


Saturday, August 25, 2007

Just a Little More Horse, of Course!



The Belgian came from the country of the same name. Although an organization of Belgian horses really took off after the St. Louis World's Fair in 1903, the organization was founded before 1880. Farmer's like this horse because it is an easy keeper and has a docile personality. The modern Belgian is a great wagon horse as well as a doughty work horse. The fact that Belgians are equally as effective in pulling competition as in hitch competition says it all. The most common colors are sorrel and blond sorrel with a white mane and tail. Roans and bays are also common to the breed.

The Clydesdale is from Scotland. It is named for the Clyde River. If you are trying to distinguish the Clyde from other draft horses; look at their wide hoofs and look for feathering above the foot. The most common color in this breed today is bay, with a generous number of browns, blacks and chestnuts. The preferred markings are four white socks to the knee and hocks and a well defined blaze or bald face. There are many roans in the breed. The Clyde with his flowing feather, straight and snappy movement, and generous white markings is a popular hitch horse. Though ranking third numerically and fourth in size in this country, the Clydesdale may well be the best known of all the draft breeds to our urbanized countrymen. The splendid Anheuser Busch eight hitches have brought Clydesdale's down hundreds of streets and into millions of homes across the nation.

The Shire is from England. It can be nearly every possible color with white markings. It too, has feathers, however they are silky and straighter. If you watch movies about merry old England where there are knights in shining armour, you will NOT see shires. Shires were used in battle and in games because the knight in his armour weighed 400 pounds and the horse needed to be a strong durable horse to maintain the rider's needs.

In general, conformation the Percheron is not unlike the Belgian, in fact except for color it would be difficult to distinguish between some animals of both breeds as they are well-muscled, short-backed, drafty animals setting on good feet and legs. Both are pretty much free of the feather that characterizes the Clydesdale and Shire. It is a French bred horse. The horse is black or grey.

April 1916 Rosewood News Andrew Opseth purchased a Percheron mare last week. He bought the horse at the Richard Erickson’s auction. When Opseth had his sale, he sold his BLACK mare.

Rosewood News Fred Jashaw was taken to town following an accident. He was doing his chores. One of his horses had broken loose during the night and in trying to get this animal out from between two others which were tied, a tangle resulted in which the accident occurred.

Rosewood News Ole Lappegaard has a sick horse.

Rosewood News Benhard Ranum is at Viking today on a horse purchasing tour.

May 1910 Boy’s neck broken when kicked by a horse. The lad was instantly killed while feeding the animal on Sunday. Phelps was 14 years old. The horse struck the boy in the head. He is the eldest of eight children and the man of the house when his father is away doing dredging work.

December 1921 Rosewood News Ted Nelson has fallen victim to the wolf hunting fever and has built a canvas enclosed sleigh with regular machine gun opening on the sides with removable top wide runners, and draw by a team of lightly colored horses. They promise to give the wolves a real chase.

June 1923 Man shot through the leg by his own gun, brings his horses to the barn and feeds them before seeking medical attention.

February 1924 A car skidded into a buggy and the driver, Austin Austinson, broke his neck. He and his son were on their way to Holt when an auto, driven by Floran Benier of Jamestown, North Dakota skidded on the narrow, icy road while trying to pass the buggy which Austinson had brought to a halt. The horse was frightened and bolted, tossing Austinson off the back of the buggy. His son was not injured. It was considered a purely accidental tragedy.

May 1925 Rosewood News Last Sunday afternoon, Ted Nelson and Emil Hellquist left with six horses for Warren, in route to Angus where they have been hired to cut for one summer months in highway construction for contractors Solberg and Anderson. Coming to Warren towards evening their horses were stabled for the night and in taking off the harness, one of the broncos became unruly, knocking over Ted and before help arrived had him very badly battered. The young man was immediately taken to the hospital but advices Monday were not very favorable. He was having regained consciousness slightly for a while. His head is badly bruised and it is feared he may have suffered some internal injuries. Mrs. Thea Nelson, his mother and sister, Eleanora and Mrs. T Mellem left on Monday to be with him at the hospital. Ted drove a light colored team; both purchased this winter, one stallion and one bronco weighing about 2800 pounds. Both animals were high spirited but not ugly in spirit.

February 1926 Rosewood News A party of folks driving to Thief River Falls had the misfortune of driving into a team and sleigh driven by Mike Ault, west of Viking and injuring the driver of the car. The driver was taken to the hospital and had his head sewed up. It seems the driver of the Ford, was coming along at a very fair clip of speed on the state road west of TRF when a team was encountered but too late to avoid a collision and with the result that the horses spread one on each side of the car and the sleigh tongue striking the radiator of the car which gave in and the tongue slid above the windshield with the result above mentioned. One of the other boys was slightly bruised but the man with the sleigh rig was not injured. A passing car stopped and took the boy to the hospital.

February 1926 Horse owned by the Ed O’Hara Dray Company falls through the ice and drowns!

(Ed O'Hara is the father of Lorine, who married Otto Ranum. Otto is the son of Knute and Kari Ranum. One of their children, Patrick lives in Oregon).

May 1926 Fire of unknown origin burns barn to the ground. The 32 x 42 barn was on the Martin Rust farm where six calves and three horses were consumed by flames.

June 1931 Benhard Ranum was last week awarded the contract for moving the school building in District number 127 to District number 2 where it will be put to replace the old Willowdale building which burned this spring. He will be assisted in the work by Ted Thompson, and the building will be raised on small trucks and moved the 3 ½ miles with a horse puller. Ranum and Thompson also have the contract for erecting a foundation and building the chimney.

NOTE: It is unclear to me why they are using horses to pull the small trucks. Horse pulling is a big sport in the USA, thirty plus states have organizations. The contest is simply to see what horse can pull the greatest load. The horses are generally Belgians, Percheron's, Clyde's, or Shires. I am thinking they would be Percheron's and possibly rented from a farmer.


Friday, August 24, 2007

A Horse is a Horse of course, of course!!!

We mentioned farm horses briefly in another blog. We mentioned that horses were brought to Thief River Falls from Montana and sold to farmers to replace oxen for field work. It is hard to tell just how big these horses are but note their long heads and their sway like backs.

The sulky or riding plow was a major advancement in the ease of work on the pioneer farm. Walking behind a plow team all day long was not an easy task. This plow was designed with a shaft that is already at the shoulder height of a team of horses. The first picture shows a man walking behind a plow. Notice how well built his horses are.

The basic rule for the sulky plow was one horse per acre per day. Most often this plow would have been pulled by three horses though two could have done the job. Adding the third horse made the work easier on the whole team and your horses would be fresher throughout the day.

Most farmer's named their horses. Many of the horses were spoiled and considered part of the family. They were big horses, often standing 17 hands at the whither, or where the mane ends. Generally they were gentle and in time, I will share a picture of Dorothy sitting on the back of one of the Anderson's team as a small child. Later in life, my dad had a team of Belgians, a big draft horse, their names were Beauty and Bell. The man that sold them to him missed them so much he bought them back! The question is, what is a hand?

The origin of measuring a horse this way is very old, but easy to understand. In days long ago people did not have the common measuring devices (like tape measures, etc.) that we do today. To measure a horse, they used what was handy (no pun intended): Their hands. At various times in history and in different locales a "hand" was defined as the with of a person's hand using the fingers only, the width of a person's hand using the fingers and the thumb, the height of a clenched fist, and possibly others. Somewhere along the way, the measuring unit of a hand was standardized to mean four inches. Though the origins are ancient, a hand is still the unit of measurement for horses that modern horse owners still use today. Belgians might be as tall as 19 hands at the shoulder, or 76 inches.

On July 4, 1883, starting from Crookston at the crack of a rifle, there was a barn storming rush of men eastward. Men rode behind ox teams, or came on bouncing buckboards, with others on horseback or even riding mules, each eager to have for him a choice piece of land to claim as his home

July 1896, A team of horses with an empty wagon drove up LaBree Avenue on Tuesday last, the horses feet stuck in the mud and the horse tried to pull them out by sticking his nose in the mud; falling in thus he laid down and so did the other horse. The driver jumped out and he too, stuck in the mud and was helped out be the bystanders minus his shoes. LaBree Avenue must be paved!!!

1903 A mail man in Ransom almost had his ear bitten off by a horse.

J. Donovan who was reported killed by being run over by a plow, was later said to be alive but mangled.

1910 Horse and mule hides $1.50 to $3.00

A man by the name of Daly made a deal with Fred Zaisner for the purchase of a team of horses for $350.00. He gave the man a check for $425.00 and got cash of $75.00 from Mr. Zaisner. The check was not honorable and Daly is bound over for trial.

And one more for today:

June 1915 St. Hilaire woman seriously hurt in runaway, horses spooked by fluttering cloth

So much for horsing around!


Lots of accidents happened on the farm and in the city with horses. Although it may seem romantic that a horse is a runaway with a damsel in the buggy, it happened and the Lone Ranger or Roy Rogers wasn't always there to stop the horse or snatch the lady off before the buggy or buck board went over the cliff.

Let's look at some old newspaper articles about horses and see what we can find.

Thursday, August 23, 2007

Shall We Make Sense of the Census?

The 1885 Minnesota Census Report of counties and town­ships, which is available on line at, lists New Solum Township as having 54 families. There were 126 males and 98 females for a total of 224 people.

The Minnesota Census of 1895 tabulated New Solum Township with 311 Minnesota born residents: 9 from Ger­many ; 26 from Sweden; 218 from Norway; 5 from Canada; 2 from Denmark. This totaled 260 foreign born residents. Give or take for a total according to Ancestry. com 575 residents.

The Minnesota 1905 Census Report counted 47 residents born within the township; 323 Minnesota born; 8 from Germany; 51 from Sweden; 158 from Norway; 6 from Canada; 1 from England and 2 from all other countries, which totaled 226 foreign born residents, a total of 596. Remember the Minnesota Census of 1905 covers ten years.


1885 Alfred, Almok, B, Berner, Edwart, Karl N are the children and Knudt and Siri are the parents.

1895 Alfred, Berner, Bernhart, Carl, Edward, Friman, John, Karine, Kasper, Oscar, Sanfred, and Kunt as the only parent.

1905 Casper, Freeman, Otto, Ruth, Senfred. With Kari and Knut N as parents.


1885 Andreas and Hanna as the parents. Gustav, Hilda, and Olaf. Census was taken on May 1, Julia was born in October.

1895 Andrias and Hannah as parents, Gustaf, Olaf, Julia. Where is Hilda?

1905 Andrew and Hannah as parents, Gustaf, Hannah, Olaf, and Hilda. Where is Julia? She is working in Thief River Falls and is listed in their census.


1885 Forinus and Pauline as parents.

1895 Carl, Emil, Lina, Nina, Peter, Thea, Tina, with Forinius and Panline as parents. YES! That is the way it is spelled on the census!

1905 Carl, Ella, Emil, Lena, Mabel, Nina, Tina with Twrenins and Pauline as parents.

New Solum Township census for the following years are:

1910 422

1920 510

1930 414

It would be so interesting to find out what the census for the Township has been in the 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000! I wondered if Berna from the Marshall County Courthouse could give me that? I will get back to you with that!


Wednesday, August 22, 2007

Early Settlers--Gilbert Haugen

Gilbert Haugen settled on section 4, Strip in 1883. Just to remind you that anyone with Strip after the section means it was part of the section that was later added to Marshall County.

Gilbert Erickson, or Haugen as he was known in this coun­try, was born in Aadalin, Ringerika, Norway, February 15, 1843. As a young man he learned the tailor's trade and came to America at the age of 21 in 1864, on a sail ship.

He lived and farmed for a time with his brother near Grand Meadow, Mower County, Minnesota, and was married there to Bertha Seaverson.

They were the parents of one boy, Edward, and two girls, Annie (Mrs. Thorn Holten), and Christine (Mrs. Bergene). His wife passed away in 1883 the same year he filed on the homestead in New Solum Township.

Section 4, Strip.

The children arrived alone later on the train to St. Hilaire. The youngest was only a year old. Try to imagine what it would be like to put your children on a train by themselves when the youngest was one. We know people on the train would have been helpful but could you?

Gilbert farmed with horses and raised horses for sale. Broncos were brought to Thief River Falls from Montana and sold to farmers. The broncos replaced oxen for farming. If you see old pictures of farming you will note the horses are ill bred with long heads and somewhat skinny bodies.

In 1885 he was married to Ingrid Skindrud who passed away in 1918 shortly after losing their home by fire. The family was housed through the winter in a one room shanty where seven became sick during the flu epidemic. My information does not state if Ingrid or any of the children died from the flu.

If you flip back through the blog to a very early one, you will see his daughter, Annie Holten, with the spinners. In later years, Gilbert stayed with her and also with his other daughter.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Pioneer Settlers--John Halverson Family

When John's parents, Halver (1827) and Ingeborg (1834) were marriedin Wascea, they changed their name from HELLEM to Halverson.

John was one of eleven children; eight boys and 3 girls. John was born in 1859 and his wife Gina was born in 1869. John filed 3-40 acre claims in section 30 of New Solum Township in 1882. He was one of the first settlers to prove his land.

In 1896, they bought section 31, commonly known as the Lilac Farm for $511 on a tax foreclosure sale. This gave him a total of 120 + 160=260 acres.

In 1897 he built an eleven by nineteen foot house, later he added an eight by eleven foot addition.

The children listed on the census are

Ida (no year given)

Alfred 1891

Manda Caroline 1893

Agnes 1895

Esther 1897

Ruth 1900 who married Fred Ranum

Raymond 1903

James 1904

William 1905

Orris 1907

Glenn (no year given)

When the Soo Line came through section 31 in 1905, John was compensated for his land and buildings. He recieved money for the right of way as well as damage to his buildings. The built a new 28 x 28 foot frame house. He also hauled tamarac logs from Thief Lake and had them milled to build a barn.

John and his wife are buried in Bethlehem Cemetery.

Monday, August 20, 2007

Early Settlers--Reinhart Nelson Family

The Reinhart Nelson Family

Norman 1883

Olga 1885

Regina 1886

Ida 1887

Tedeman 1888

Victor 1890

Ben 1891

Alma 1893

Esther 1894

Richard 1894

Clarence 1898

Charlie 1899

Martha 1902

Reinhart and Martha were married at Ada, Minnesota, in Norman County on January 1, 1883.

That spring they traveled three days by covered wagon pulled by oxen with a cow tied behind to home­stead in New Solum Township, section 8.

Norman was the first white child born in New Solum Town­ship.

Nelson and his wife worked side by side to build a cabin. She sat on the downed trees while Nelson peeled off the bark. The small log house had two small sqaures of icing glass for windows. He took all the money he had and bought a 50 cent wooden door to keep the Indians and the bears out. Imagine sleeping with an axe by your bed to protect oneself against predators!

By 1890, he built another room to the log house and also a big barn. In 1900, he built a house 28' X 28'.

Twelve children were born in the log house and the 13th child in the new home.

In 1898, Nelson built the Edgewood School close to their home. There were nine Nelson children attending school at the same time. Sometimes they took turns going to school, as they didn't have proper clothing and shoes for all of them.

The family moved to Texas about 1905. They are listed on the 1885, 1895, 1900, and 1905 censuus as being residents of the New Solum Township.

Sunday, August 19, 2007

Early Settler of New Solum --Hellquist

John E. and Anna (Bergman) Hellquist Famly

Their children were









John E and Anna, the parents, and son John are buried in Wildwood Cemetery. Emil is buried at Rindal Cemetery.

Alex was a member of the Traveling Library in Rosewood

Emil Hellquist’s car goes turtle up, fenders and the windshield badly damaged but Emil okay. 1922

Emil got his fur coat stolen at a Farmer's meeting 1922

John E was a member of the Wildwood Cemetery Board

John E had wall board put in his house in 1928

John E died in 1945

John A hosted the Young People's Society, (Mission Church)

Emil Hellquist broke his leg in 1948 while haying

Florence Hellquist dies at Oakland Park San in 1949

John E. Hellquist, (1875-1945) and Anna, (1860-1918) were married in Ishpeming, Michigan in 1882 and came to Marshall County in the spring of 1883 to Section 3 and 4 of township 155.

Hellquist was working in the iron mines around Ishpeming. Marquette County, Michigan when he arrived from Sweden during the depression of the early 1880's, was not much work to get. They decided to try homesteading in Minnesota.

In the fall of 1886 a prairie fire burned their first grain, all the hay had been cut by scythe. Chickens, pigs, shelter for the livestock, oxen and cows saved themselves by hiding in the woods. The only building on the Hellquist place was the homestead one room shack, a truly black winter.

In 1888-1889 Hellquist and Styr­lund ripped lumber for flooring from spruce logs by hand. They put the logs on high saw horses, then they sawed the frozen logs by hand. They sawed flooring for two rooms, 10 x 10, after the boards were dry they planed them by hand.

Friday, August 17, 2007

Ole L Veele

August 19, 2007

Birthday greetings to Nenna and Robert.

Ole L Veelle, (so spelled on the Minnesota Territorial and State Census of 1885) was born around 1861 and was a resident of New Solum Township. Ole L Veele first shows in the 1885 census of New Solum Township. In 1900, he was farming in Cedar Township of Marshall County. 1910 he was farming in Clakamas, Oregon and was married with four children. He continued to reside in Oregon in the 1920 and 1930 census.

When we learned that Henry Stengelsen was an author, the question arose; was Veele a pen name? No, Ole is a real person.

Ole wrote the New Solum column for the Warren Register newspaper back in 1888.

Read on:

January 18, 1888

Mr. Editor:--

Your valuable paper finds its way to this remote eastern part of Marshall county, and is welcome visitor during our uninteresting winter life, as it is also in the busy summer days, when working midst the poplar groves, wrestling with the mosquitoes and brush; for at that time an interesting newspaper is indeed appreciated.

I have seen nothing in your paper from our town and I thought that many readers from other parts of the country would like to see a few items from this place, even if my sentences should be a little awkward, as it is my first attempt at newspaper correspondence.

I consider it is rather late to state that we had an unusual bountiful crop last summer, on the sand ridges, more than anyone expected, the wheat yielding for 20 to 30 bushels to the acre. But although the crop be ever so good, it is very inconvenient for us to bring to market; but "the star of hope beams in the east," as the construction of a county road has been started between New Solum and Excel, and we all wish it was completed; but "well begun is half done," and it was none too early, either, as not even a bridge has been put up east of the Pembina Trail in Marshall county. Such an undertaking will be highly appreciated and supported by us "Easterners."

The country is well settled. Nearly every quarter section has a settler in this town, and it will be a fine looking country when we get it well improved which would greatly be facilitated by having a good road out here east from Warren.

The soil here, it is true, is sandy, but for stock raising it is be best country in the Northwest. For agriculture it has not been fairly tested yet, as only the sand ridges have been cultivated and these have not yielded very liberally until last year; but we have land between the sand ridges, covered with brush, which is just as good land as can be found in the Northwest. A good graded road would be as useful for us here as a flowing well on the prairie, or water works for Warren.

We have had more snow out here this winter than we have had any previous winters since New Solum was settled. The snow is three or four feet deep on an average and the snowdrifts are so high that they greatly exceed in size the piles of money the Democrats have heaped together in the treasury vaults at Washington.

Our common school in district 27 is prospering under the able management of our teacher, Hilda Thompson. Friday, the 30th of December they had an entertainment in the "Hauge" Church. (In the early 1800’s in Norway, Hans Nielsen Hauge eschewed the formalism of the state church,and he led and encouraged homemeetings and lay participation in church services. During the1850’s and 60’s, many Norwegianswho had been influenced by HansNielsen Hauge immigrated to the states — by necessity as well as inclination —they continued Hauge’s practices of home meetings and lay ministry).


Will the voters of Marshall County stand by the straight Republican party next November 4th or will they try to sit on the fence like they did the last election

From New Solum News Early February 1888

How do you do, Ole? I'm indeed glad to see you out tyring your young wings. Quite a flight for one so young.

I am very thankful to you for making the attempt. It shows that there is some people out here in this beloved township, too; and it kind of revives any courage, too. Alas! It is not my first "attempt at newspaper correspondence," but I have frequently broken my wings so that I feel now sometimes a chill rush through my marrow when flapping my wings preparatory to a trivial flight. I hope you will have better success. like you, I am a little late this time. You might have reported more recent happenings if you had known it. Since you did not, I am mighty glad of the chance to do so myself.

In short, Christmas was celebrated at Mr. SE Grodem's by a small company of neighbors. It was only a pleasant social gathering. On Tuesday following a meeting was held at the same gentleman's residence, a religious instruction and edification was aimed at and a pleasant, blessed meeting it was.

Then, Ole writes back to this guy the following week of February 18, 1888:

How do you do, Samuel? What is the matter with you? I thought a pretty fellow like you would not say a word against my writing. But when I read your article int he paper, I see you have chosen to sing out to me your, "How do you do?" Well, no wry faces in consequence. You say I am out trying my wings. Just so; one must use wings, for the free thinker atmosphere is so thick here now that one can hardly get through it; but I hope the wings will hold and the flight go on. And you speak of having broken your wings and hope I will not do so; but I'll have to risk it. I knew very well of those gatherings at the SE Grodem's but I did not think them worth noticing, for I think that dancing and such things are not of much interest to report to a newspaper.. And the other meeting which was intended for religious instruction and edification, I think cannot be called by that name for anything that is against the Word of God should NOT have the name religion. I thank you very much for your article and adieu for this time.

So much for news feuds!


Peder and Kari Stengelsen Mystery SOLVED

Kari Stengelsen and her spinning wheel

Peder and Kari (Lovrud) Stengelsen

Peder Eriksen Stengelsen was born September 18, 1859 in Norway to Erik Pedersen Stengelsen and Bridt Stengelsen. He received his education at Amtskole, Norway. He married Kari Lovrud in 1887 in Norway. She was the daughter of Knud and Ingeborg Lovrud of Norway.

Mr. and Mrs. Peder Stengelsen came to Marshall County in 1889 where they farmed in Sec­tion 29 in New Solum Township.

The Stengelsens had nine children: Ida (Mrs. Sjosvold); Edwin C; Laurence; Anna (Mrs. Windmiller); Carrie (died in infancy); Laura (Mrs. Evans); Henry; Albert and Clarence.

The Stenglsens were members of the Rindal Lutheran Church.

Mr. Stengelsen died November 2, 1944. His wife had died December 28, 1937. Both are buried in the Rindal church cemetery.

"Henry Stengelsen's hobby of tracing Norwegian ancestry has produced an interesting genealogy dating back to a Nor­wegian judge born in 1445. He also took several pictures in the Rosewood/New Solum area. Although he is credited with writing the New Solum News, in the Warren paper, the only author I found in early years, was an Ole L. Veele, unless, of course, that was a pen name!

The Stengleson/Stengelson Mystery

Shirley's email this morning made this statement and asked this question:

It wouldn't let me post a comment..I was wondering if the Edwin Stenglesen that wrote that article is the same Ed Stengles that lived on the corner where we'd turn S. to go to the Lilac Farm?

I started my answer before 8 AM it is now 11:30 AM. Once I answered her with lots of questions, I started looking. Well, genealogists, you know the rule: Divide the time you have into minutes, hours, half days, and days.

I wrote to Shirley:

Regarding the Stengelson's. I do know they lived adjacent to the Lilac Farm because that is were they went to school. Edwin dictated the information to his brother Albert. Edwin was born in 1890 and Albert in 1902. At the time of the writing, Edwin was living in a nursing home in Montana.

Their parents immigrated to Minnesota from Norway in 1881. They settled in Michigan before moving to Minnesota. We know this because Ida was born there.

Other children of Peder and Carrie are Lawrence, Anna, Laura,and Henry are listed on the 1910 and 1920 census.

They link up to the family because of Olga. Who married John Ranum, Benhard's brother. But she is not listed in that family as Olga. I don't believe she was Ida, as later census show her as a house maid working outside the home.

The section and the dates are correct. They very well have lived on/near the lilac farm, we know that because they went to school at the intersection near or about Lilac Farm Road and County Road 8.

Peder and Carrie, the parents, as well as Albert and Edwin are buried at Rindal in lot 11. Other Stengelson's mentioned as being buried in that plot are Bridt, Clarence, Clara, and Erick but I don't know who they connect with at this time. I don't have any death dates for any of them, nor can I find any information that Albert or Edwin were married. Next time I go to the cemetery, I will make note of who is buried by whom. Wait! I have a plat map, I can look on that! Gotta find it first.

I looked at the census for 1885, 1895, and 1905. We do know that Peder Stengelson pioneered near Newfolden before moving to New Solum. I think that is what the problem is, my research just didn't stretch far enough!

But what I did find in the 1885 census was there were four Stengelson's listed in New Solum Township in 1885:
Brith 1828
EB 1869
EP 1826
Mayda 1874

New Solum Township census 1895: This is when Mr. Stengelson remembers starting school at five.
This is when it gets good.
The last name is spelled S-K-J-O-R-L-S-R-O-L-D

1900 Federal Census:
Spolsvold There were two different families by this name living in the area at the time.

In 1905
It is spelled S-J-O-L-S-V-O-L-D

The plat map I am looking at shows Erik Stengelson owning land in section 29. According to the 1900 census, Erik and Brit owned this land; they were born in 1826 and 1829 in Norway and Peder was born in Norway in 1860. I think they are two different families. Like I told Shirley, I am going to have to go to the cemetery and look at the graves because the information I need to satisfy this blog and myself, is not on the plot/lot map of the Rindal Cemetery, that is birth and death dates.

Although Erik and Peder may have been brothers, I do not know that for certain. I am not finding anything on message boards doing a quick search. We DO know that Edwin, who wrote about going to school had a sister, Ida, who became a teacher.

We do know that Bridt, (Brit) are buried in the same plot as Peder and Carrie at Rindal. Also buried there are Clarence, Clara and of course, Edwin and Albert.

I was hopeful I would find another Stengleson/Stengelson in New Solum with a daughter, Olga, born in 1891 who married my grand uncle, Johnnie Ranum. Alas, I did not.

I do know in reading the Rosewood News, that my dad worked for the Stengelson's, it does not say which one, although we know they were farmers.

It is NOON! We are leaving on holiday in a few hours! I need to get moving!

BUT! Before I do, if Ralph Skjod can change his name to SKAY, isn't it possible the first recordings were the old country spellings?

Think about this: We know in the census there was an EB and A EP. Could EP be Peder and went by Erik?